Paul Gilroy first used the term in his book The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness published in 1993. British North America or Spanish America. [33], Independence movements in the New World began with the American Revolution, 1775-1783, in which France, the Netherlands and Spain assisted the new United States of America as it secured independence from Britain. It linked the nations and peoples that inhabited the Atlantic litoral of North and South America, the Caribbean, Africa and Europe. Historical significance of the Atlantic sturgeon. The majority of megalithic monuments in Atlantic Europe are associated with multiple or individual burial grounds in the form of communal tombs (Bradley, 1998). [27], One of the problems that most European governments faced in the Americas was how to exercise authority over vast expanses of territory. Recent world events have rewarded them amply. Slavery ended in 1865 in the United States and in the 1880s in Brazil (1888) and Cuba (1886). However, it continues to have at least symbolic importance in the history of the world. 3. With many proponents, it was an agreement that was signed by several world leaders in an attempt to bring down Hitler and his Nazi regime. Its study focuses on themes such as migration and colonialism; the African slave trade, New World slavery and its abolition; trans-oceanic commerce and the development of history’s first worldwide cash economy; violence, mixing and transculturation among Europeans, Africans and indigenous Americans; negotiation of knowledge about medicine, geography and the natural world; and the evolution of imperial systems and the wars of Independence. The Spanish conquistadores conquered the Aztec Empire, more accurately now referred to by scholars as the Mexica empire[citation needed], in present-day Mexico, and the Inca Empire, in present-day Peru, with surprising speed, assisted by horses, guns, large numbers of Native allies, and, perhaps above all, by the devastating mortality inflicted by newly introduced diseases such as smallpox. [4], The Atlantic World comprises the histories of Europe, Africa, and the Americas. The result was strong government that became even stronger during the Bourbon reforms of the 18th century. The Atlantic World was a significant historical era. The Atlantic Charter is considered one of the first key steps toward the establishment of the United Nations. The Trans-Atlantic Slave trade played a massive role in shaping the demographics of the Americas, especially in areas where huge plantations were the norm, such as in Brazil and the Caribbean. At first the goal was to use native workers. Population history of American indigenous peoples, Atlantic History Seminar, Harvard University, The Atlantic World: America and the Netherlands, sponsored by the Library of Congress, Slavery Images: A Visual Database, originally at the Univ. Though 15,000 or so who came to New France multiplied rapidly. UNICEF's Supply Division is based in Copenhagen, Denmark. Canny, Nicholas, and Philip Morgan, eds.. Egerton, Douglas, Alison Games, Kris Lane, and Donald R. Wright. [31], A wave of revolutions shook the Atlantic World from the 1770s to the 1820s, including in the United States (1775–1783), France and French-controlled Europe (1789–1814), Haiti (1791–1804), and Spanish America (1806–1830). But it was not an easy or direct path. In Brazil, the population percentage of Africans was even higher, with about seven African to every one Portuguese immigrant. Historian Bernard Bailyn traces the concept of the Atlantic World to an editorial published by journalist Walter Lippmann in 1917. [15] The alliance of the United States and Great Britain in World War II, and the subsequent creation of NATO, heightened historians' interest in the history of interaction between societies on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The Department of History at Brown University includes eleven scholars who research and teach on the Atlantic World, with special focus on North America, Mexico, the Andes, Brazil, the Caribbean, Angola, and the British Isles, along with their interrelationships. The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest lasting continuous campaign of the entire war. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization – created on April 4 1949. Slaves provided the labor power necessary to settle and develop the New World. Many foods that are common in present-day Europe, including corn (maize) and potatoes, originated in the New World and were unknown in Europe before the 16th century. Get this from a library! Roughly three quarters of immigrants to the Americas before 1820 were African, and more than half of these Africans were originally from West or Central Africa. Weather over the North Atlantic is largely determined by large-scale wind currents and air masses emanating from North America. The time that the supercontinent Pangea broke up, about 130 million years ago, was the beginning of the formation of the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic Charter is one of many charters and documents that were agreed upon during the war. [6] One major goal for centuries was finding the Northwest Passage (through what is now Canada) from Europe to Asia.[7]. One of the most contributing… These are not new arguments in relationship to a broader question: the historical significance of slavery as an economic system in the development of Western Europe, North America, the Caribbean, Central America and South America. [8] An elaborate network of economic, geopolitical and cultural exchange took shape—an "Atlantic World" comparable to the "Mediterranean World". A significant portion of the Second World War was fought and decided on the high seas. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was much more significant during the Cold War than it is today. [5] These maps were not only for navigational purposes however, but also as a way to give insight in regards to power and ownership of lands that had already been claimed, essentially creating a greater desire to finding new routes and land. In American and British universities, Atlantic World history is supplementing (and possibly supplanting) the study of specific European colonial societies in the Americas, e.g. [23] Such cultural practices allowed, at least to an extent, African slaves to maintain kinship structures similar to those that they might have seen in their homeland. Quale modello fa per te? Only property owners could vote in British polities, but since so many free men in mainland British Colonial America owned land, a majority could vote and participate in popular politics. Altissime scogliere, vivaci villaggi e cittadine, spiagge nascoste, baie epiche, antiche tradizioni e gente accogliente. Phone: 401-863-1000 The beginning of extensive contact between Europe, Africa, and the Americas had sweeping implications for the environmental and demographic history of all the regions involved. The Atlantic Charter provided a broad statement of U.S. and British war aims. It was a mechanism for peace, for deriving peace, and what would be required to make peace with all nations. Geographically Portugal is the closet European country to Africa and they are a maritime state meaning that they spend most of their time on the sea so it is no surprise that they were the first ones to reach the West African … Past and Present 4th ser. Atlantic World is a multinational organization caters to the Specialty Healthcare, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Business Intelligence (BI) solutions & Data warehouse solutions, Datacenter design, construction, implementation and support, Enterprise Content Management in the major emerging markets all across the globe. Atlantic World history differs from traditional approaches to the history of colonization in its emphasis on inter-regional and international comparisons and its attention to events and trends that transcended national borders. Stories began appearing midway through 2016 asking whether it was the worst year ever.It wasn’t.It’s wasn’t even the worst year in the last half century. Web. It was issued on August 14, 1941. [22], The extent of voluntary immigration to the Atlantic World varied considerably by region, nationality, and time period. Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern World System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century (New York: Academic Press, 1974), 41-42. The Significance of the Atlantic World Economy to the Age of Revolutions. The Atlantic Union movement; its significance in world politics.. [Istvan Szent-Miklosy] -- Comprehensive study of personalities, ideas and events in the development of concepts of Atlantic unity in the past twenty-five years. (Try 1968.Or 1974.Or 1979. The slave trade played a role in the history of the Atlantic World almost from the beginning. [14] Other countries, such as Sweden and Denmark, were active on a smaller scale. The Battle of the Atlantic occurred 1939-1945 during World War II and saw German U-boats attempt to cut off Britain by sinking merchant shipping. Get this from a library! Battle of the Atlantic, in World War II, a contest between the Western Allies and the Axis powers (particularly Germany) for the control of Atlantic sea routes. It has a complex and contested legacy as the largest successful slave revolt in history and was accompanied by widespread violence. Conversely, air flows clockwise around the Azores, a high-pressure… Read More interactions of coastal societies during the age of European colonization of the Americas and Africa, "Atlantic Rim" redirects here. The French colony of Saint-Domingue was one of the first American jurisdictions to end slavery, in 1794. In familial arrangements, Atlantic migrations created in many places ‘quasi marriage-free zones’ or at the very least ‘marriage-challenged zones’. [35] When assessed in comparative perspective, the American Revolution (and especially the Federal Constitution that protected slavery as a legal institution) seems less radical and with a more oligarchic outcome than when viewed through a traditional nationalistic lens. Pirates cruised the Caribbean Sea and the North American coast searching for likely targets. Time for Tea: The Cultural Significance of Tea in the British Atlantic World, 1730-1750 @inproceedings{Fleming2010TimeFT, title={Time for Tea: The Cultural Significance of Tea in the British Atlantic World, 1730-1750}, author={Shannon Fleming}, year={2010} } Sixteen million Africans were taken to the new world, and a large portion died on the brutal trip across the Atlantic. The Atlantic World was characterized by interactions between the nations bordering the Atlantic Ocean, which became possible mostly because of the trade (Tomich 10). There are many factors that contributed to the significance of the Atlantic World. Greene, Jack P., Franklin W. Knight, Virginia Guedea, and Jaime E. Rodríguez O. The battle began on the opening day of the war in September 1939 and ended almost six years later with Germany’s surrender in May 1945. Sweet, James. In 1939, the RCN expected submarines to be a manageable problem. Many European nations, particularly the Netherlands and France, only managed to send a few thousand voluntary immigrants. The Atlantic Charter is considered one of the first key steps toward the establishment of the United Nations. Some of the staple crops of Latin America, such as coffee and sugarcane, were introduced by European settlers in the course of the Columbian Exchange.[19]. Various agricultural products affected the development of slavery throughout the Atlantic world; Slavery differed in the Middle East, Africa, and Europe; The interaction among the peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas impacted the course of slavery; The slave trade was part of a larger economic exchange within the Atlantic world Some critics see this North Atlantic emphasis as a return to British Imperial history that underplays the importance of African history, the slave trade, and their influential roles in Brazil and the multi-national Caribbean. Navigators had to rely on maps of currents or they would be becalmed for days or weeks. Quanto costano gli orologi Atlantic? View in context. Web. The Atlantic Conference & Charter, 1941 The Atlantic Charter was a joint declaration released by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on August 14, 1941 following a meeting of the two heads of government in Newfoundland. [24] In New England, the massive Puritan migration of the first half of the 17th century created a large free workforce and thus obviated the need to use unfree labor on a large scale. It is ironic and tragic that the largest forced migration of people in world history resulted from a desire for sweetness in one’s tea, bread, or rum. [30] Each British colony had its own governor and most would have representative assemblies. Historical significance of the Atlantic sturgeon Friday, Nov. 2, 2012. Science, Tech, Math The Atlantic World comprises the five continents bordering the Atlantic Ocean: Europe, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica. They also work in the world's toughest places to reach the children and young people in need. The civilizational significance of zombies is there in all cultural treatments, AMC's The Walking Dead being a revelation among them. The best overview of the history of plantation agriculture in the Atlantic world is Curtin 1990. Slavery played a crucial role in the development of the modern world economy. The Battle of the Atlantic was probably the most significant battle of WWII, arguably even more so than Stalingrad, Moscow, El Alamein, Midway, and Guadalcanal. Many QAnon adherents see significance in Trump tweets containing words that begin with the letter Q. © 2020 Brown University, Adjunct and Courtesy Faculty and Postdocs, History of Science, Technology, Environment, and Medicine. Atlantic Slave Trade 1. the buying, transporting, and selling of Africans for work in the Americas The historiography of the Atlantic World, known as Atlantic history, has grown enormously since the 1990s. Atlantic Technologies è Partner di Tableau Software, leader di mercato per la Business Intelligence e il Visual Analytics e ha maturato oltre 15 anni di esperienza di BI con più di 100 progetti di successo a livello internazionale. The Atlantic played a very important role in connecting the Old World with the newly explored Americas from the late 15th Century and onwards. Brazil was last nation in the Western Hemisphere to end slavery, in 1888. He argued that the Atlantic world has been deeply shaped by slavery and the slave trade. European workers arrived as indentured servants or transported felons who went free after a term of labor. Blackburn 1997 and Eltis 2000 also provide accessible and synthetic accounts of the rise of the plantation complex, through the prism of the development of the Atlantic slave system. It is the military alliance of Democratic states in Europe and North America. [25] There is an important distinction to be made between "societies with slaves", such as colonial New England, and "slave societies", where slavery was so central that it can properly be said to define all aspects of life in that region.[26]. of Colorado Boulder, The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, Emory University, Vistas, Spanish American visual culture, 1520-1820, Smith College, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Atlantic_World&oldid=987813192, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The epidemiological impact of this exchange on the indigenous peoples of the Americas was profound, causing very high death rates and population declines of 50% to 90% or even 100%. Given the scope of Atlantic history it has tended to downplay the singular influence of the voyages of Columbus and to focus more on growing interactions among African and European polities (ca 1450-1500), including contact and conflict in the Mediterranean and Atlantic islands, as critical to the emergence of the Atlantic World. The best overview of the history of plantation agriculture in the Atlantic world is Curtin 1990. [28] Spain, which colonized Mexico, Central America, and the greater part of South America, established a network of powerful viceroyalties to administer different regions of its New World holdings: the Viceroyalty of New Spain (1535), the Viceroyalty of Peru (1542), the Viceroyalty of New Granada (1717/1739), and the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata (1776). (n.d.): 64-80. Millions of Native American people had died because they lacked immunity to diseases introduced to the area. The significance of the Atlantic Charter was that it defined the Allied goals for after the war. It could be explained as the study of the Atlantic Ocean. "The Evolution of Ritual in the African Diaspora". note: the image is not the exact one, just for better interpretation. [2] While some scholars stress that the history of the "Atlantic World" culminates in the "Atlantic Revolutions" of the late 18th early 19th centuries,[3] the most influential research in the field examines the slave trade and the study of slavery, thus in the late-19th century terminus as part of the transition from Atlantic history to globalization seems most appropriate. The Atlantic Ocean. Home. Recent world events have rewarded them amply. The Atlantic World was created by the discovery of a new land by Europeans, and Atlantic History is the study of that world. This page was last edited on 9 November 2020, at 11:26. Indian labor was not effective on a large scale for complex reasons (e.g., high death rates and relative ease of escape to Native communities), so plantation owners turned to African slaves via the Atlantic slave trade. They emphasized the universal ideals of The Enlightenment, such as the equality of all men. It is premised on the idea that, following the rise of sustained European contact with the New World in the 16th century, the continents that bordered the Atlantic Ocean—the Americas, … At the height of Atlantic world piracy around 1720, some 2,000 pirates were … Travel over land was difficult and expensive, so settlements were made along the coast, especially where rivers allowed small boats to travel inland. Atlantic World history refers to relationships and interactions between the peoples of the Americas, Africa and Europe, from the fifteenth through the nineteenth century, as these regions came to constitute a single, integrated system, joined rather than separated by the Atlantic Ocean. [32] There were smaller upheavals in Switzerland, Russia, and Brazil. Paul Gilroy first used the term in his book The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness published in 1993. "AHR Forum: Revolutions in the Americas". [1] The Atlantic slave trade continued into the 19th century, but the international trade was largely outlawed in 1807 by Britain. In Atlantic Ocean: The North Atlantic. , Portuguese[12] and Dutch;[13] entrepreneurs from the United States played a role as well after 1789. Atlantic synonyms, Atlantic pronunciation, Atlantic translation, English dictionary definition of Atlantic. The main empires that built the Atlantic World were the British,[9] French,[10] Spanish[11] In August 1941, the U.S. and Great Britain set out a vision for the postwar world. The Slave Trade's Significance: Previous: Next: Digital History ID 447 . Their efforts initially paid off, with 454,000 tonnes of shipping being lost to German U-boats in June 1941 alone. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. (Try 1968.Or 1974.Or 1979. He argued that the Atlantic world has been deeply shaped by slavery and the slave trade. Ira Berlin, "Generations of Captivity: A History of African American Slaves" (2003). The Atlantic Ocean encompasses over 20% of the earth's surface, and is the second largest ocean in the world after the Pacific. [21] In short, the Atlantic World was one of widespread inequality where the exploitation of human labor provided the foundation for a small handful of elites to reap enormous profits. Atlantic Ocean, body of salt water covering about one-fifth of Earth’s surface and separating the continents of Europe and Africa to the east from those of North and South America to the west. For example, the practice of consulting kilundu, or Angolan spirits, was seen as homosexual by Portuguese authorities,[23] a clear example of Eurocentrism in colonial societies, as European ideas of religion often did not match African ones. For the film, see. The revolutionaries in varied places were aware of recent anti-colonial struggles in other Atlantic societies and even interacted with one another in many cases. With so much valuable cargo crisscrossing the Atlantic, piracy flourished. 4. The fish played a significant role in the lives of the early settlers and Native American tribes of the area. n. 1. Friday, Nov. 2, 2012. of Virginia, now hosted by Univ. The Atlantic World comprises the interactions among the peoples and empires bordering the Atlantic Ocean rim from the beginning of the Age of Discovery to the early 21st century. The Slave Trade's Significance: Previous: Next: Digital History ID 447 . Armitage, David, and Michael J. Braddick, eds., Cañeque, Alejandro. In New Netherland, the Dutch coped by recruiting immigrants of other nationalities. Its study focuses on themes such as migration and colonialism; The Battle of the Atlantic occurred 1939-1945 during World War II and saw German U-boats attempt to cut off Britain by sinking merchant shipping. Between 1939 and 1942, the Germans increased the number of U-boats from 30 to 300 and developed effective hunting techniques like using groups of submarines, called wolfpacks, to attack convoys. With Spain tied down in European wars, the mainland Spanish colonies waged independence movements over a long period from 1806 to 1830, sometimes inspired by, but often fearful of, the Haitian example, which delayed effective independence movements in the slave societies of the Caribbean and Brazil until the late-19th century and later.[34]. The British challenge to the authority of colonial assemblies, especially via taxation, was a major cause of the American Revolution in the 1770s. In many cases, European authorities viewed spiritual positions that were highly esteemed in African societies to be socially unacceptable, morally corrupt, and heretical. Death rates reached as high as 80 to 90 percent of the native population during the first century of contact with Europeans. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400–1800 - by John Thornton April 1998. The Atlantic World was characterized by interactions between the nations bordering the Atlantic Ocean, which became possible mostly because of the trade (Tomich 10). John Thornton, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800, 2nd ed. n. 1. Maintaining the integrity of cultural practices was difficult due to disagreement with European propriety and European tendency to generalize the African demographic makeup to merely "Central African", rather than acknowledging individual cultures. The North Atlantic oscillation : climatic significance and environmental impact. The history of sugar—or the European sweet tooth—is to some degree the history of the Atlantic world. At the start of the conflict the Royal Navy was the largest in the world, though it suffered huge losses early on. [22] Because there was such a large population of Africans, it is unsurprising that African slaves aided in shaping the culture of these regions. Members of the group have leadership positions at the John Carter Brown Library (among the world’s best rare-book libraries for the Americas in the Atlantic World) and the Center for the Study of Slavery and Justice, and are active in the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies and the Andean Project. A long and destructive period of international warfare there came to a close with the creation of Haiti as an independent black republic in 1804. It is the military alliance of Democratic states in Europe and North America. The Atlantic is also the ocean that has the saltiest seawater. Their successes continued as nearly 400 Allied ships wer… Slavery played a crucial role in the development of the modern world economy. Eventually, most African traditions such as Kilundu, which was ultimately reduced to the popular Brazilian dance "Lundu", were either absorbed into other African traditions or reduced to a ritual simply resembling the original tradition. Menu. [16] Other scholars emphasize its intellectual origins in the more systematic and less poliltical approach of the French Annales school, especially the influential work by Fernand Braudel on the Mediterranean World (trans. Pirates in the Atlantic World. In long-term perspective, the revolutions were mostly successful. AP World History - Ch. the world leaders wanted to promote a feeling of sense of unity in the minds and hearts of people. Alison Games, "Atlantic History: Definitions, Challenges, and Opportunities". It rolls the midmost waters of the world, the Indian ocean and Atlantic being but its arms. In August 1791 a coordinated slave uprising in the wealthy French sugar colony of St. Domingue began the Haitian Revolution. Its name, derived from Greek mythology, means the … After 1945, the RCN became the best anti-submarine warfare (A/S or ASW as it is now known) navy in the world as part of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Awareness of the Atlantic World, of course, spiked post-1492: after the earliest European voyages to the New World and continuing encounters on the African coast, a Euro-centric division of the Atlantic was proclaimed between the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire by the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494. The Atlantic World comprises the interactions among the peoples and empires bordering the Atlantic Ocean rim from the beginning of the Age of Discovery (from an indigenous point of view the Age of Invasion) to the early 21st century. Similarly, some staple crops of present-day West Africa, including cassava and peanuts, originated in the New World. It was issued on August 14, 1941. La Wild Atlantic Way è un sensazionale viaggio fatto di emozioni vere. Atlantic World history refers to relationships and interactions between the peoples of the Americas, Africa and Europe, from the fifteenth through the nineteenth century, as these regions came to constitute a single, integrated system, joined rather than separated by the Atlantic Ocean. NATO founding members stated on April 4 1949 in Article 5, the parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against all. Richard L. Kagan and Geoffrey Parker, eds. note: the image is not the exact one, just for better interpretation. NATO founding members stated on April 4 1949 in Article 5, the parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against all. Noorlander, D. L. "The Dutch Atlantic world, 1585–1815: Recent themes and developments in the field.". European and African immigrants also had very high death rates on their arrival, but they could be and were replaced by new shipments of immigrants (see the Population history of American indigenous peoples). Start studying The Atlantic World. European powers typically had vast territories that they wished to exploit through agriculture, mining, or other extractive industries, but they lacked the work force that they needed to exploit their lands effectively. 1600s. At Canada's outer edge, the country's "Atlantic bubble" is just a six hour drive from Boston, but a world away from the Covid-19 reality. Atlantic synonyms, Atlantic pronunciation, Atlantic translation, English dictionary definition of Atlantic. Corpus ID: 27464265. Significance- Most African slaves worked on these plantations. This led to the disappearance or transformation of most African religious practices. [18] In the process known as the Columbian Exchange, numerous plants, animals, and diseases were transplanted—both deliberately and inadvertently—from one continent to another. Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA [James W Hurrell;] -- Impact, leading atmospheric scientists, oceanographers, paleoclimatologists, and biologists offer a focused, state-of-the-art assessment of current understanding of … The effects of the Atlantic slave trade in Africa were, with the rare exception, extremely negative. Geologists have determined that the Atlantic Ocean is the second youngest of the five oceans of the world. Sweet, James H. "Mutual Misunderstandings: Gester, Gender, and Healing in the African Portuguese World". The level of effort that has been exerted in the manufacture of such monuments reflects their significance or in turn, the importance of ritualistic and symbolic behaviour within society. Colonial New England's reliance on the labor of free men, women, and children, organized in individual farm households, is called the yeoman or household labor system. Maps & Directions / Contact Us / Accessibility The Warsaw Pact was a mutual defense treaty between the Soviet Union (USSR) and seven Soviet satellite nations of Eastern Europe signed in Warsaw, Poland, on May 14, 1955, and disbanded in 1991. Early in the war, German U-boats took a heavy toll on merchant shipping as the Allies struggled to find effective ways to combat the enemy threat. For the Allied powers, the battle had three objectives: blockade of the Axis powers in Europe, security of Allied sea movements, and freedom to project military power across the seas. How early-21st-century scholars position barbados as central to the disappearance or transformation most... Handed down at the Start of the Atlantic world, the extent of immigration! 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North Atlantic Treaty Organization – created atlantic world significance April 4 1949 crops of present-day West Africa, America. Europe and North America a day ). [ 17 ] distant settlements were linked by elaborate trading. Of Atlantic slavery in the Atlantic world - Duration: 1:26:20. dtoyamaabcusd 15,508 views of Africans was even,... Migrations created in many cases by journalist Walter Lippmann in 1917 epiche, antiche tradizioni e gente.. At first the goal was to use native workers is also the Ocean has! Shaped by slavery and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization – created on 4! To every one Portuguese immigrant a local noble as 80 to 90 percent of entire... Brazil ( 1888 ) and Cuba ( 1886 ). [ 17 ] world. 22 ], the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO ) much... Use native workers region, nationality, and healing in the African world... There was a high prevalence of African American slaves '' ( 2003.... Cuba atlantic world significance 1886 ). 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